This critique, prepared at the request of Sutherland Shire Council, addresses the documentation submitted by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO) to a government-sponsored review committee. The documents provide ANSTO’s case for constructing a new research reactor. This critique does not take any position on the merit of constructing a new research reactor. Instead, it examines the case that ANSTO has made. Factors that are considered are the status of nuclear power technology, alternatives to the proposed reactor, the potential role of a research reactor in producing materials for nuclear weapons, and the role of prestige. It finds ANSTO’s case to be poorly structured and incomplete, recommending the review committee decline to accept ANSTO’s submission and request a new version.