Thompson, Gordon, Paula Gutlove and Jacob Hale Russell (May 2003). Social Reconstruction in Afghanistan Through the Lens of Health and Human Security. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Institute for Resource and Security Studies. (28 pages).

This paper, a version of which was subsequently published in the book, Beyond Reconstruction in Afghanistan: Lessons from Development Experience, describes a strategy for applying human-security principles to social reconstruction in Afghanistan by working through the health sector.   Experience in the former Yugoslavia and elsewhere shows that health and social-reconstruction programs can be integrated to their mutual benefit.   After 23 years of violent conflict, the rebuilding of Afghanistan faces severe challenges.   Physical and social infrastructures are debilitated, the economy barely functions, the population’s health and nutritional status is among the lowest anywhere, and internal security is lacking.   Also, Afghanistan poses a potential threat to richer countries as an exporter of drugs and terrorism.   This combination of factors makes the concept of human security especially applicable to Afghanistan’s reconstruction.

The paper reviews current conditions in Afghanistan, with particular emphasis on problems facing the health sector.   It then discusses the reconstruction strategies used by domestic and foreign actors, particularly in the health and internal-security sectors.   Next, human security and its application are described.   The paper then reviews experience elsewhere in integrating health programs and social-reconstruction programs.   This leads to a discussion of opportunities in Afghanistan for integrating health and social reconstruction using a human-security approach.   Finally, an organic, adaptive strategy for pursuing these opportunities is articulated.

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Gutlove, Paula and Gordon Thompson (26 April 2003). “Human Security: Expanding the Scope of Public Health.” Medicine, Conflict & Survival , 2003. Vol. 19-1, pp. 17-34, published by Frank Cass, London. Reprinted with permission. (13 pages).

This article, published in Medicine, Conflict & Survival, discusses human security as an evolving principle for organizing humanitarian endeavours in the tradition of public health. Human security places the welfare of people at the core of programmes and policies, is community oriented and preventive, and recognizes the mutual vulnerability of all people and the growing global interdependence that mark the current era. Health is a crucial domain of human security, providing a context within which to build partnerships across disciplines, sectors and agencies. These principles have been demonstrated in field programmes in which health-care delivery featuring multi-sectoral co-operation across conflict lines has been used to enhance human security. Such programmes can be a model for collaborative action, and can create the sustainable community infrastructure that is essential for human security.

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San Luis Obispo Mothers for Peace, with assistance from IRSS (April 2003 ). A Call for Action to Protect the Nation Against Enemy Attack on Nuclear Power Plants and Spent Fuel. Pismo Beach, CA: San Luis Obispo Mothers for Peace. (4 pages).

This document, prepared for the San Luis Obispo Mothers for Peace in their efforts to protect the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant, is a call for citizens across the US to inform themselves about the increasing risk of attack on nuclear power plants and their irradiated (spent) fuel.  The Call for Action was supplemented by a more detailed Supporting Document produced by IRSS.

The Call for Action includes three important tables.   The first describes four measures to protect nuclear facilities against enemy attack:   Site Security, Facility Robustness, Damage Control, and Offsite Emergency Response. The second sets out an Action Agenda for Citizens, Local and State Governments, Congress, the Executive Branch and the Nuclear Industry, respectively.   The third outlines three specific Policy Initiatives that would be key components of the Action Agenda.

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Thompson, Gordon (26 March 2003). Viewgraphs for Sellafield—A Safe Future? Cambridge, Massachusetts: Institute for Resource and Security Studies. (8 pages).

This document contains the overhead viewgraph illustrations accompanying a presentation by Gordon Thompson (Executive Director, IRSS) at a Panel Discussion Sponsored by the European Parliament Working Group on Nuclear Safety titled “Sellafield—A Safe Future?” held at the European Parliament, Brussels Room on March 26, 2003.  

The titles of the slides are: (1) Safety of Civilian Nuclear Facilities; (2) Major Activities at Sellafield; (3) Effects of Unplanned Radioactive Release at Sellafield; (4) Potential Release from Liquid HLW Tanks at Sellafield; (5) symmetric Warfare & Civilian Nuclear Facilities; (6) Nuclear Proliferation, International Security & Sellafield; and (7) Recommended Actions.  

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Thompson, Gordon (January 2003). Robust Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel: A Neglected Issue of Homeland Security. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Institute for Resource and Security Studies. (83 pages, Executive Summary 7 pages).

This report , commissioned by the Citizens Awareness Network,   sets forth a strategy for robust storage of US spent   nuclear fuel.   The prevailing practice of storing most US spent fuel under water in high-density pools poses a high risk of maliciously-induced release of radioactive material.   Additionally, dry-storage modules of independent spent fuel storage installations at nuclear power plants are not designed to resist determined acts of malice or insanity.   This report presents a detailed strategy to address both wet and dry storage risks.   This strategy should be seen as a major element of our homeland security.   Both the executive summary and the complete report can be downloaded here.

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Thompson, Gordon (October 2002). Status and Prospects of Sustainable Engineering Education in Some American Universities. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Institute for Resource and Security Studies. (8 pages).

This paper was presented at the Conference, “Engineering Education in Sustainable Development”, held at Delft University of Technology, Netherlands, during the period 24-25 October 2002.   It reviews US standards and proclamations related to sustainable engineering education of undergraduates, and the practice of such education in three US universities: Boston University; Massachusetts Institute of Technology; and Tufts University.   A major purpose of the paper is to contribute to the development of generally-accepted criteria and methodologies that could, ultimately, be used to assess sustainable engineering programs at universities in the United States and elsewhere.

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Thompson, Gordon and Paula Gutlove (September 2002). Health, Human Security, and Social Justice. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Institute for Resource and Security Studies. (26 pages).

This paper begins with a general discussion of human security, a social justice organizing principle that places the welfare of people at the core of programmes and policies. The paper then focuses on the role of health and social justice as major, mutually-reinforcing pillars of human security.   Health can be a unifying dimension for human security because it provides a context within which to build an array of partnerships and a unique opportunity for deeper understanding and implementation of human security.   Health-related programmes can provide an important neutral platform to address fundamental obstacles to peace because health is universally valued.   They can be a model for collaborative action and can create the sustainable community infrastructure that is essential for social justice and human security.  The potential benefits of pursuing health and social justice within a human-security framework are illustrated by experience with two practical endeavours in the Balkans and in the North Caucasus.   Finally, the paper outlines a strategy for capturing such benefits on a global scale.

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